Image source: Junk Head by Yamiken Hori
Here's a good question. If a lucid dream is any dream in which you know you're dreaming, and people can mentally train themselves to achieve this, then why aren't we always lucid in dreams?
Why doesn't it just become the default state of dreaming? Why do we accept our dreams of flying pigs and dinosaurs as an extension of waking life? What is the mechanism for defaulting to non-lucid dreams?
Intriguingly, scientists have approached this question from three different angles.
According to depth psychology, we need to be passive, unconscious participants in our dreams so that our unconscious mind can perform dream therapy.
The ability to accept the dream as a genuine reality is important for the unconscious mind to do its psychological healing, personality integration or achieve catharsis.
I believe this is true in itself - but it doesn't hold up as a mechanism for non-lucidity. If it did, you'd only be physically capable of having lucid dreams if you were free of unreconciled inner conflict.
And that just doesn't fit my experience. Does it fit yours?
A very important job of your brain is to interpret sensory information. That information is received via your eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin, nerves and so on.
But you can trick your brain into receiving other information too. Take imagination, for example. Or hallucinations. Or dreams.
This is the nature of perception. Your brain doesn't particularly discriminate between types of input. What's more, it accidentally adds and deletes stuff all the time. You can see this effect at work in optical illusions, or the low-light mirror experiment.
While awake (not lucid dreaming) sit directly in front of a mirror in semi-darkness and stare at a point on your face. Within a minute or so, your features may blend together or disappear, while your head may pulsate and float. The effect disappears the moment you move your eyes, but it's a pretty fascinating insight into how you perceive the world. Things truly aren't as they seem.
And so this is why the indiscriminate brain doesn't notify you when you're awake or dreaming. That would be a function of the conscious mind. But when you're asleep, your conscious mind is offline and so the dream is accepted by your brain (your unconscious perceptions) as reality.
What's more, both dream and hallucinatory images triggered by the brain stem can be as real as waking perception. (This is why the "realness" of a lucid dream still can't prevent you from losing lucidity.)
The effect is so profound that, while dreaming, your unconscious mind invents false memories to explain what you're seeing. For instance, you might accept a dream about a talking gorilla by recalling a false memory of an experiment in which he was trained to talk.
"See? My story checks out."
This also explains why, with the sudden SNAP introduction of consciousness into a dream - just for a split second - it gives you the insight to recognize you're dreaming.
An alternative explanation points to developmental psychology.
Consider the idea that you dreamed, not only as a child, but as a fetus. That's right - you dreamed in the womb. This was long before you discovered the laws of physical reality, and even before you knew what a human being looks like.
So, unconsciously, your brain was programmed to recognize the fluid and imaginative constructs of the womb-inspired dream world before you ever set eyes on the rigid, logical laws of the real world.
Bizarre dreams left impressions on your unconscious brain before the waking world itself. If these foundational memories still guide your unconscious expectations, then it's no wonder you don't challenge your reality and become lucid in dreams by default.
Furthermore, dreams and reality differ in their respective level of expectations. The waking "I" expects stricter reality rules as you mature. This theory suggests the brain recognizes the boundary between these two worlds as waking up, and is able to adapt to a different set of rules.
Occasionally, when this mechanism fails, you have a false awakening. That's when the waking "I" is activated even though you are still inside a hallucinatory dream world. From there it's a small but logical step to become lucid, since you can now judge your false awakening dream by logical, waking standards.
So, which theory do you go for - and why?
If we're completely honest, lucid dreaming isn't really known for being the most social of interests. In fact, often it's a lone pursuit - just you, your dream journal and the landscape of your mind. But this technique called PAL (or Partner Assisted Lucidity) breaks down that wall and turns lucid dream exploration into a social event.
Members of our lucid dream forum have been asking how to create dream characters in lucid dreams. The most common problem is having characters who look nothing like they should. Or they seem disinterested in your company. Or they fail to show up on command altogether. So, how to combat this? It's a matter of finding creative solutions that bypass logical expectations.
To lucid dream, I recommend being able to remember at least one vivid dream per night. That will boost your self awareness in dreams (making lucidity more likely) and also means you can actually remember your lucid dreams. Which is nice. Here are four detailed tips on how to remember your dreams more frequently. And if you don't think you dream at all - trust me, you almost certainly do. It takes an extraordinarily rare sleep disorder to deprive someone of dream sleep.
It is estimated that these wise and wily Indians have been using mugwort in their healing and ritual practices for 13,000 years, where it is known as the ‘dream sage’. They use the herb to promote good dreams, which they consider an essential aspect of normal human functioning! But that’s not all...
Silene Capensis has been used for millennia by the Xhosa shaman of the river valleys in the eastern cape of South Africa, where it is known as Undela Ziimhlophe or 'white paths'. It's fragrant white flowers open only at night, when they emit a fragrant and almost hypnotising aroma. Also known as African Dream Herb or Ubulawu, Silene Capensis induces spectacularly vivid dreams - yet has never entered the mainstream and remains a fringe taste within western culture.
Experts agree that everyone is capable of having lucid dreams. Dreaming itself is a normal function of the mind. We all dream every night, even if we don't remember. And we all achieve conscious awareness while awake every single day. So what does it mean to combine these states? Why, the amazing ability to have conscious - or lucid - dreams. Sounds simple, doesn't it? So why do I keep hearing from people who say they can't achieve their first lucid dream?